What is Naxalites

In this blog post, we will discuss what is Naxalites. Here we focus on the establishment of Naxalites and the Political parties CPI and CPIM. If you want to little more about what is Naxalites then this post is for you.

What is Naxalites

What is Naxalites

In the history of Indian communism, as time went on, the interest in promoting unity between CPI and CPIM became stronger. Both the parties sought a United Front in the state Government of West Bengal.

The search for United Front Ministry in West Bengal was not supported by some of the radicals/extremists of the CPIM. This led to the rise of the Naxalite Movement.

Soon after the United Front Ministry in West Bengal, the Minister promised the distribution of the surplus land. But there were many legal problems and the Government could not implement that.

At the same time, some of the CPIM leaders like Charu Mazumdar and Kanu Sanyal told their friends; that this small land distribution policy would be dangerous for the Peasants’ movement. Their point of reason is, a small number of peasants might become satisfied with the small land distribution and would not like to proceed on for getting more land for more people.

On March 3, 1967, the Peasants’ conference was organized at Siliguri (West Bengal) and it called for the end of Monopoly of Landlords. Charu Mazumdar and Kanu Sanyal told that the time had come to end the ownership of landlords and to bring in re-distribution of land among all people.

They advocated the use of violence to achieve this goal. Their policy was to distribute the land and the property of the landlords to the peasants. This Peasant Conference was the root of the Naxalite movement.


In surveying the, one has to remember the incident of Telengana just after Indian Independence. Andra Pradesh communists had already adopted a Chinese approach during the years between 1948 & 1951.

At the 1964 conference of CPIM, some radical members wanted to create an underground armed; – forces to work in conjunction with the overground party organization.

But such a proposal was defeated when the CPIM resolved to participate in the United Front Ministry in West Bengal and Kerala.

Establishment of Naxalites

The first uprising in the line of Peasant’s Conference decision took place at Naxalbari; a village of Siliguri sub-division in Darjeeling district in the month of May 1967. The peasants tried to forcibly occupy the land; thus began the ‘land-grab movement’.

The armed peasants, who prepared themselves so well for some years, tried to destroy even the residences of the landlords. Land was occupied; records were burned; even the Tribunal/Tribune, a paralleled administration of Government was set up.

But there was a lot of opposition from the United Front Ministry leaders. The police and the Naxalites were involved in many clashes. The CPIM condemned the action of the police and supported the Naxalite movement.

At that time, the Peking radio approved the movement and declared: “Since, ‘like pre-liberation China, India is a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country’; the Indian people, in order to liberate themselves, ‘must proceed along the path pointed out by Comrade Mao, the path carved out by the Chinese people ….”

Also, the Chinese radio condemned the United Front Government in West Bengal. On July 20, several leaders of the Naxalite movement were arrested; some had surrendered themselves; and the hostility was suspended for the time being.

One of the failures of this movement was the lack of people’s support. Such a movement needed the basis of powerful mass support. In spite of its failures, its consequences spread all over the country. It inspired rural poor people to start their struggle for land occupation.



However, CPI could not expel CPIM from West Bengal; also they could not expel the leaders of Naxalite movement. To tell it the fact, the West Bengal CPI leaders accused the Naxalite movement and its leaders.

When the police finally moved into the area of the incident, the activists disappeared and the people offered no resistance. Only by October 1967, everything was ‘normal. But the Naxalites continued to focus their attention on the sufferings; and problems of the most oppressed; exploited, and neglected sections of the Indian population; who were landless and extremely poor.

They understand the need of the land-hungry peasants and wanted to make agrarian reforms. They deeply felt the urgency of making people’s militant struggles and participation in the Parliament.

Establishment of CPIM (What is Naxalites)

The CPIM militant members encouraged by the Naxalbari incident and formed the All India Co-ordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR) in 1968. These militant members expel from the CPIM and Mazumdar became their chief theoretician.

In 1969, this AICCCR made a decision that a time has come for the formation of the new Communist Party that would include the leaders; who were participating in the building and conducting of revolutionary class struggles.

After the release of Kanu Sanyal on 1st May 1969, the new party called the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) – (CPI) (M-L) formed and publicly announced.

This new party, CPI (ML) fully accepted the ‘Maoist Line’ for India and decided to boycott elections. Since CPI (M-L) considered the country ripe for revolution; it organized guerrilla squads to physically annihilate class enemies.

People exhorted to regard the Naxalbari movement as an illustration of the successful application of Maoist teaching to specific situations. Youth and students call upon to go to villages in order to work among the peasants.

The basic task of the party was to liberate the rural areas through arms’ revolution; and next to that, the cities would liberate by the middle of the 1970s; Naxalites attempted to create various centers of arms’ resistance in Andra Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. They also tried to make influence in the cities.

Naxalite leaders

However, different opinions arose regarding the time of the revolution. Several Naxalite leaders-such as T. Nagi Reddy (Andra), S.N.Singh (Bihar), S.K. Misra (U.P) Ashim Chaterjee (W.B) also left the CPI (M-L); mainly on the grounds that India was ready enough for a revolution and the people’s war should better organized.

By 1971-72, 19 of the 22 top leaders of the movement had either arrest or kill. Mazumdar died in Jail in 1972. There was a certain renewal of Naxalite activities in 1974 – 1975; but they were crushed during the Emergency.

From the early 1980s; there has been an attempt from the Naxalite group in the country to make efforts for forming a United Party. In 1981, 13 revolutionary organizations came together but failed to unite because of basic ideological differences.

However, the Naxalite movement was not free at all from negative criticism. If you want to know about the Indian Congress party then click here…


Even though communism in India developed its own peculiar character; and identity in comparison to the international communist movement, religion and caste still play a role in the lives of the Indian communist members.

Thus the Indian condition, as a whole, seems to not yet ripe enough for developing communist revolution as it is expected by many of its members.