In this blog post we are dealing with a brief history of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. If you want to know about Jana Sangh, then this post is for you; and also want to know how BJP was formed then click here.
The Jana Sangh was founded by Dr. Shyam Prasad Mukherjee in 1950-51. He was a member of the Hindu Mahasabha. Dr. Shyam Prasad Mukherjee was a member of Nehru’s Cabinet; but left it because he felt that the Government had betrayed the Hindus of Pakistan.
Originally the Jana Sangh consisted of a large number of conservative Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) members in North India and personal followers of Mukherjee in Bengal.
This automatically affected JS to be under the control of RSS and its leaders. In fact, one prominent member, Dr. M.C. Sharma, resigned from his membership in Jana Sangh in protest against RSS domination over JS.
But Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh had never been involved as an organization in the affairs of Jana Sangh. The only evident was the dual membership of the individuals to Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Jana Sangh (JS). However, one was free to join any organization.
When Hindu Mahashaba declined the JN gained a great strength. Under the presidentship of Dr. Mukherjee; their organization was recognized as one of the national parties of All India.
Aim and goal
The Aim and goal of JN was to unify the nations in leading to social and economic equality through economic reconstruction; and prosperity for the greatness of India. JS tried to bridge the big gap between the highest and lowest by pulling the rich down and lifting the poor.
It announced its belief on equality; its attempt was abolishment of Zamindar system by giving the land to the tillers; making labourers participate in economic management and reducing the wealth and income of the rich people.
Jana Sangh was quickly progressing and won 3 seats of Lok Sabha in 1952 General Election; and 35 seats won State Assembly election. The election in 1957 it secured 4 seats of Lok Sabha and 46 seats of State Assembvlies.
And in 1962 it secured 14 Lok Sabha seats and 114 seats of State assemblies. In 1967 JS obtained 35 seats of Lok Sabha and became largest National Party after the Congress. Unfortunately, in 1968 Mr. Dean Dayal Uapdhyaya (who succeeded Dr. Mukherjee), then murdered president of the JS.
But the death of a leader did not decline the movement of the party. This is the special comment that can give to this political culture of the Jana Sangh; as it is often said that the Jana Sangh is not an organization oriented to individuals.
The death or failure of a leading person of the party did not affect the whole movement of the party. According to the belief of JS members, political party must produce leaders; but not the particular leader should produce party.
Political party based on individual person and individual leadership had no chance to grow better, but had to split up.